STRUKTUR MUSIK || STRUCTURE OF MUSIC
Irama musik ditentukan oleh panjang pendek dan tinggi rendahnya nada serta pola-pola dalam birama. Dibawah ini akan dijelaskan pengertian nada, tempo, intensitas nada serta warna nada (timbre).
Tinggi rendahnya bunyi disebut sebagai nada. Dalam kegiatan musik nada memiliki peranan yang sangat besar, sebab nada memberi begitu banyak kemungkinan, baik untuk disusun, dipadukan maupun dikembangkan dan divariasikan. Nada memiliki sifat-sifat sebagai berikut :
a. Tinggi Nada (pitch)
Tinggi nada berkaitan dengan frekuensi atau banyaknya getaran tiap detik. Semakin besar frekuensinya maka semakin tinggi nada tersebut. Setiap nada mempunyai frekuensi tertentu, nada yang dibunyikan harus memiliki pitch yang tepat sehingga suara terdengar pas dan tidak sumbang.
c. Intensitas Nada (Dinamik)
d. Warna Nada (Timbre)
Warna nada ialah jenis suara yang dihasilkan. Warna nada tergantung pada jenis sumber bunyi, resonator (ruang gema) dan cara memainkan sumber bunyinya. Sebagai contoh suara gitar akustik yang menggunakan senar nylon warna nadanya berbeda dengan gitar akustik yang menggunakan senar logam.
2. Tangga Nada
Tangga nada terdiri dari nada-nada yang bertingkat-tingkat tingginya. Antara nada-nada tersebut terdapat jarak tertentu. Ada yang berjarak 1/2, 1, 11/2 dan 2. Jarak inilah yang nantinya menentukan kemungkinan variasi nada dan jenis tangga nada. Ada dua macam tangga nada dalam seni musik, yaitu tangga nada diatonis dan pentatonis
a. Tangga Nada Diatonis
Tangga nada ini terdiri dari tujuh buah nada yang berjarak 1 dan 1/2 nada. Tangga nada ini terbagi dalam dua kelompok yaitu Diatonis Mayor dan Diatonis Minor
b. Tangga Nada Pentatonis
Pentatonis berasal dari kata penta yang artinya lima dan tone yang artinya nada, jadi tangga nada pentatonis hanya terdiri dari lima nada pokok. Nada-nada dalam tangga nada pentatonis tidak dilihat berdasarkan jarak nada, melainkan berdasarkan urutannya dalam tangga nada.
Berikut ini tanda garis birama, dalam bahasa inggris disebut barline
A musical structure elements and principles that support the formation of a musical. music is a structure formed of several parts.
Music rhythm is determined by the length of the short and high and low tones and patterns in bars. Below is described the sense of tone, tempo, intensity of tone and color tone (timbre).
High or low sound called a tone. In the normal tone music has a very big role, because the tone gives so many possibilities, both for structured, integrated and developed and varied. Nada has the following properties:
a. High Tone (pitch)
High tone with regard to the frequency or number of vibrations per second. The greater the frequency, the higher the tone. Each tone has a certain frequency, the tone is sounded must have the proper pitch so that the voice sounded fit and not discordant.
Tempo mean time; speed; speed in a particular step size. According to Allen Winold in his book Introduction to MUSIC THEORY, said that the tempo is the speed of the beat in music. Tempo uses the size of the number of beats in one minute, or beats per minute (bpm). There are several kinds of tempos used in music, grouped into Tempo Slow (Slow Tempos), Tempo Medium (Moderate Tempos), and Fast Tempo (Fast Tempos).
Slowly or Slow tempo Tempos, has a speed of between 58-63 steps / beatsetiap minutes. Several types slow tempo, including tempo is largo, lento, adagio, and the grave. Moderate or Moderate tempo Tempos, has a speed of between 88-96 steps / beat per minute. Several tempo which includes tempo is andante and moderato. Sooner or Tempos Fast tempo, has a speed of 100 steps / beat per minute.
c. Intensity Tone (Dynamic)
Intensity is loud tone or dynamic soft sound of a tone, it depends on the width of the sound and the vibration is relative. Tone intensity will affect the atmosphere of the song. There are two basic terms, namely the tone intensity, which means a strong forte and piano which means soft.
Tone that sounded loud in the room is not necessarily hard when heard in the stadium, the weakness of a tone loud depending on personal taste. Tones that already sounds hard for a person may still not loud enough for others.
d. Colour Tone (Timbre)
The color tone is the type of sound produced. Color tone depending on the type of the sound source, the resonator (echo chamber) and how to play the sound source. For example, the sound of an acoustic guitar that uses a different tone color nylon string acoustic guitar that uses metal strings.
2. Ladder Tone
Scales consist of tones stratified height. Among these tones are a certain distance. There is within 1/2, 1, 11/2 and 2. The distance is what will determine the possible variations of tone and the type of scales. There are two kinds of scales in the art of music, the diatonic scales and pentatonic
a. Stairs tone diatonic
These scales consist of seven tones within 1 and 1/2 tone. These scales are divided into two groups: diatonic Major and Minor diatonic
Differences in tonality, major and minor scales sound clear when used in music. Major diatonic scales give the impression of a carefree and upbeat, while the minor diatonic scales give the impression moody and less vibrant.
b. Nada stairs Pentatonic
Pentatonic derived from the word penta meaning five and a tone that means tones, so the only pentatonic scales consists of five basic tones. The tones in pentatonic scales are not seen by the distance tone, but based on the sequence in the scales.
Pentatonic found worldwide: the tuning krar in Ethiopia and gamelan in Indonesia, also the melody of the African-American spiritual song. Pentatonic generally used in traditional music in Indonesia for example the gamelan music.
At gamelan music is divided into two scales, namely pelog and slendro. Pelog scales tend to give a feeling of calm, respect and adore slendro while the scales are chirpy and eager.
3. Pulse and Pattern Rhythm
When we hear a good music was rock, reggae, blues, pop and traditional, unconsciously perhaps we will follow his knock by tapping the toe on the floor, moving his head, clasped his hands on the thighs and so on. This beats having a certain duration of the same amount, constant and regular. Basic beats long track with a fixed duration is called pulse.
Meanwhile, when the knock has a duration which is not the same length but consistent and repetitive with a certain pattern, then it was named as the rhythm
Rhythm patterns formed from a variety of rhythmic musical instruments, but also tuned instrument.
Time signature or time signature is also called the mark count to determine the number and value of each count on each birama.Tanda bars are placed at the beginning of the music. contains two numbers where the numbers one put before the other numbers. The top number indicates the number of beats in each segment bars. The bottom number is the unit that is used as a benchmark note values due, for example, 4/4 time signature can we interpret that in the bars are 4 1/4 note. For a 2/4 time signature means in the bars are 2 quarter notes and so on.
Examples of time signature:
1. 4/4 time signatures
4/4 time signature is the most commonly used time signatures in almost every genre of music. This means that every four-bar count and each count is worth a quarter or four quarter notes in any bars.
2. bars 3/4
3/4 time signature means there are three bars each count and each count is worth a quarter or three quarter notes in any bars.
3. 6/8 time signatures
6/8 time signature means there are six bars each count and each count is worth one-eighth or not there are 6 1/8 as a standard tempo.
4. 2/4 time signatures
2/4 time signature means there are two bars each count and each count is worth a quarter or two quarter notes in any bars..
Here is a sign barlines, in English called barline
C. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
1. melodic instruments
Melodic instrument is an instrument used to play a series of tones or melody of a song. For example, guitars, violins, harps, keyboards, angklung, calung, kolintang and others.
2. Instruments rhythmic
Rhythmic instrument is a musical instrument in his game gives rhythm or a particular rhythm, it relates to the beat (pulse) and bars.
Examples of rhythmic musical instrument is the drums, jimbe, tambourines, gongs, kempul, drums, drum, tambourine, maracas and others.